Crozier stage

the first young bracken shoots prior to unfurling; shaped like the top of a shepherd’s crook.


a type of symbiotic relationship between fungi and the roots of other plants; frequently woody plants

Halo thinning

progressive, selective thinning around a tree or small, distinct group of trees.

Pole stage

plantation woodland in the early stages of thinning

Saproxylic invertebrates

those species that are dependent for part of their lifecycle on dead or dying wood.


trees and shrubs beneath the canopy; includes younger individuals of the dominant canopy species, small tree species, saplings and trees which have developed a shrub form as a result of coppicing or heavy browsing.


the transition zone between two or more vegetation communities

Epicormic growth

twiggy growth that sprouts directly out of the main trunk of a tree, often from the base of the trunk.


two or more vegetation communities occurring together in an intimate mix, with no one community dominant.


organisms, particularly fungi and bacteria that feed on dead organic matter

Thicket stage

a plantation that has a closed canopy; the branches are interlaced.

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