Crozier stage

the first young bracken shoots prior to unfurling; shaped like the top of a shepherd’s crook.


the transition zone between two or more vegetation communities


a type of symbiotic relationship between fungi and the roots of other plants; frequently woody plants

Fell to waste

fell and leave the tree in situ to decay.

Halo thinning

progressive, selective thinning around a tree or small, distinct group of trees.


Plantation on Ancient Woodland Site


organisms, particularly fungi and bacteria that feed on dead organic matter

Saproxylic invertebrates

those species that are dependent for part of their lifecycle on dead or dying wood.

Thicket stage

early growth of a plantation, when it looks like thick scrub.

Epicormic growth

twiggy growth that sprouts directly out of the main trunk of a tree, often from the base of the trunk.


two or more vegetation communities occurring together in an intimate mix, with no one community dominant.

Pole stage

follows 'thicket stage' in a young plantation, as trees compete for light, lose their lower branches and shoot up to form pole-like trunks.

Section 41 species

priority species for conservation listed under the NERC Act 2006. Equivalent list in Wales is Section 7 under the Environment Act (Wales) 2016.


the natural process whereby structure and composition of vegetation (and associated animals etc.) at a site change over time, often from open habitat to grasses / scrub, then taller shrubs and trees. Happens within existing woodlands where canopy gaps allow light in. Gaps in vegetation are colonised by ground flora or understorey plants, and eventually new trees. Woodland management can imitate succession to provide habitat variety and new generations of trees.


trees and shrubs beneath the canopy; includes younger individuals of the dominant canopy species, small tree species, saplings and trees which have developed a shrub form as a result of coppicing or heavy browsing.

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